|Altaf Shaikh at Model School (Ex Sindh University) Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan (Photo credit: altafshaikhjapan)|
The political boundaries stage the city as a district and the region has seen major political turmoil. From the battles fought against the British occupation to the civilian unrest in the 1980s, the city has lost its glory of past and much of its cultural and architectural heritage lies in tattered ruins.
Hyderabad has been a staging point for literary campaigns particularly oriented towards the Sindhi language and a birthplace of a few influential poets and Sufi dervishes. Rich with culture and tradition, the city is the largest bangle producer in the world and serves as a transit between the rural and the urban Sindh.
Stationed close to important architectural digs like the pre-Harappan Amri at 110 km, the region holds extreme importance to archaeologists the world over.
Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (Nerun or Nerun Kot) (meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept of the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks giving it the name Pacco Qillo (Sindhi: پڪو قلعو) meaning the strong fort.
After the death of the last Kalhoro, the Talpur dynasty ruled the region. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.
The City has a history of Sufism. In the 18th Century Syeds from Multan migrated and settled at Tando Jahania making it a sacred place for Muslims. These Syeds came here from Uch Sharif (Bahawalpur District) via Jahanian (Khanewal District 42 km from Multan). These were the descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangasht a famous sufi saint. The family’s lineage is linked to Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari of Uch Sharif( Punjab, Pakistan). Tando Jahania is a small town in the city known for Sufism and Azadari.
The Baloch Talpur rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat, the invasion of expanding British colonial empire. The British wanted to annex Sindh due to their strategic interests in the Punjab region and Afghanistan. The Talpur Amir signed a peace agreement that gave significant concessions to the British. After signing this peace agreement Amir Talpur demobilized his volunteer army. The British General Napier also started to march his army back towards Bombay. When the General Napier heard that the Talpur Amir had demobilised his Baloch army he turned back his army and again threatened Hyderabad. The peace agreement with Talpur Amir was of no consequence compared to the strategic interests of the British colonial empire. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. General Napier was firmly determined in conquering Sindh and plundering Hyderabad. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 when the Talpur Amirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The Amirs of Hyderabad suffered great loss, their Fort was plundered, thousands were killed and Amirs themselves were exiled to Rangoon, Burma - never to see Sindh again. The British made the city part of the Bombay Presidency of British colonial empire.
At the time of independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muhajirs began to immigrate to Pakistan and many settled in the city of Hyderabad. These refugee Muslim lost everything in India and were settled in refugee camps. This hostility translated into communal tension in Hyderabad between Muslim refugees and local Hindus; After independence of Pakistan, Hindus abandoned Sindh in large numbers due to communal violence, or simply for economic prospects in India. Hindus had formed the backbone of Sindhi commerce and industry, and their departure was filled by educated Muslim migrants who quickly established themselves in the city. The migration of (Muhajirs)after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 raised the population levels of the city to never seen before numbers. The late 1980s were a dark period in the history of Hyderabad as riots and violence broke out between the political parties of the Muhajirs, and the Sindhi nationalist parties.
 Capital of SindhAfter the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Karachi the former provincial capital of Sindh from 1936 was made the Federal Capital of Pakistan.
From 1947 to 1955 the city of Hyderabad served as the capital of Sindh province,which was later dissolved and one unit was formed named West Pakistan. Lahore was the capital of West Pakistan. In 1969 Karachi regained the status of capital of newly made province Sindh which included Khayrpur state as well.
 Geography and climateLocated at 25.367 °N latitude and 68.367 °E longitude with an elevation of 13 metres (43 ft), Hyderabad is located on the east bank of the Indus River and is roughly 150 kilometres (93 mi) away from Karachi, the provincial capital. Two of Pakistan's largest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad. Several towns surrounding the city include Kotri at 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi), Jamshoro at 8.1 kilometres (5.0 mi), Hattri at 5.0 kilometres (3.1 mi) and Husri at 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi).
Hyderabad has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), with warm conditions year-round. The period from mid-April to late June (before the onset of the monsoon) is the hottest of the year, with highs peaking in May at 41.4 °C (106.5 °F). During this time, winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is more pleasant. Winters are warm, with highs around 25 °C (77 °F), though lows can often drop below 10 °C (50 °F) at night. The highest temperature of 48.5 °C (119 °F) was recorded on 7 June 1991, while the lowest temperature of 1 °C (34 °F) was recorded on 8 February 2012.
In recent years Hyderabad has seen great downpours. In February 2003, Hyderabad received 105 millimetres (4.13 in) of rain in 12 hours, leaving many dead. The years of 2006 and 2007 saw close contenders to this record rain with death tolls estimated in the hundreds. The highest single-day rain total of 250.7 millimetres (9.87 in) was recorded on 12 September 1962, while the wettest month was September 1962, at 286 millimetres (11.26 in).
Hyderabad is an important commercial centre where industries includes: textiles, sugar, cement, manufacturing of mirror, soap, ice, paper, pottery, plastics, tanneries, hosiery mills and film. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Handicraft industries, including silver and gold work, lacquer ware, ornamented silks, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well established. Hyderabad produces almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in Pakistan. Hyderabad is a major commercial centre for the agricultural produce of the surrounding area, including millet, rice, wheat, cotton, and fruit. Pakistani government recently discovered a large gas deposit in Hyderabad which has not been put in production. One of the most famous deserts is coffee cake of famous bombay bakery. Rabri (a desert prepared from pure milk) is also very delisious and famous. Paan (a chewing leaf) from gulab paan house is very popular. In last decade, software industry has also emerged noticeably in the city, like progmatec.com. Illis (PALLA) fish is most tasty and popular dish.