Maulana Hasrat Mohani
(b. 1875 Unnao
, d. 1951 Lucknow
) (Urdu: مولانا حسرت موہانی) was a Romantic Poet
language, journalist, politician, parliamentarian and a fearless freedom fighter of Indian Sub-continent.
The real name of Maulana
was Syed Fazl-ul-Hasan. Hasrat
was his pen name
which he used in the Urdu poetry
. Similarly the word Mohani refers to the native place of Mohan
where he was born.
Hasrat Mohani was not just a maverick when it came to publicly championing the radical thinking of Tilak
. He also wrote verses expressing deep love for Krishna
and often went to Mathura
to celebrate Krishna Janmashtami
A few of his books are Kulliyat-e-Hasrat Mohani
(en. Collection of Hasrat Mohani's poetry), Sharh-e-Kalam-e-Ghalib
(en. Explanation of Ghalib's poetry), Nukaat-e-Sukhan
(en. Important aspects of poetry), Mushahidaat-e-Zindaan
(en. Observations in Prison), etc. A very popular ghazal Chupke Chupke Raat Din
sung by Ghulam Ali
, was penned by him. He was also featured in the filmNikaah
The famous slogan of Indian freedom fighters Inquilab Zindabad
was coined by Hasrat Mohani himself.
In 1921 Ram Prasad Bismil
Congress along with many volunteers from Shahjahanpur
and occupied a place on the dias. A senior congressman Prem Krishna Khanna
and revolutionary Ashfaqulla Khan
was also with him. Bismil played an active role in the Congress with Maulana Hasrat Mohani
and got the most debated proposal of Poorn Swaraj
passed in the General Body meeting of Congress. Mohandas K. Gandhi
, who was not in the favour of this proposal became quite helpless before the overwhelming demand of youths. It was another victory of Bismil against the Liberal Group of Congress.
He returned to Shahjahanpur and mobilised the youths of United Province for non-cooperation with the Government. The people of U.P. were so much influenced by the furious speeches and verses of Bismil that they became hostile against British Raj.
Hasrat Mohani participated in the struggle for Indian Independence (end of British Raj
); and was jailed for many years by British authorities. He was the first person in Indian History who demanded 'Complete Independence' (Azadi-e-Kaamil) in 1921 as he presided over an annual session of All India Muslim League. He was not only a practising Muslim but also a strong supporter of the communist philosophy, as he could see that the British could be defeated by following its principles.
He was among the founders of the Communist Party of India. He was also imprisoned for promoting anti-British ideas, especially for publishing an article against British policies in Egypt, in his magazine 'Urdu-e-Mualla'. Afterwards, unlike some Urdu poets like Josh Malihabadi
and Nasir Kazmi
, and many Muslim leaders, he chose to live in India rather than move to Pakistan
after independence (1947)in order to represent left over Indian Muslims on various platforms. In recognition for his efforts, he was made a member of the constituent assembly which drafted the Indian constitution. But unlike other members, he never signed it since he saw hypocrisy towards Muslim
minorities in it (he was a Muslim himself).
According to Akhtar Payami: Hasrat's poetic genius has been acclaimed by many writers and critics. In the not too distant past (beginning and the first half of the 20th century), Hasrat Mohani,Jigar Moradabadi
formed a constellation of emerging poets in a crucial period of India's history. Major political developments were taking place in the subcontinent and the sun was about to set on the British Empire. As conscious members of society, poets and writers do not remain indifferent to the changes in their socio-political milieu. Not only India but the whole world was in a state of flux.
Maulana Hasrat Mohani died on 13 May 1951 in Lucknow, India.
Hasrat Mohani Memorial Society was founded by Maulana Nusrat Mohani in 1951. In Karachi
, Hasrat Mohani Memorial Library and Hall Trust, Karachi have been established by Hasrat Mohani Memorial Society (Regd.) Every year, on his death anniversary, a memorial meeting is conducted by this Trust as well as many other organisations in India and Pakistan. AlsoHasrat Mohani Colony
, at Korangi Town
, was named after Maulana Hasrat Mohani.
- Kulliyat-e-Hasrat Mohani (Collection of Hasrat Mohani's poetry)
- Sharh-e-Kalam-e-Ghalib (Explanation of Ghalib's poetry)
- Nukaat-e-Sukhan (Important aspects of poetry)